Hole – Pacific Coast Highway

26 May

Landslide buries California’s scenic highway in Big Sur

26 May

http://www.cnn.com/2017/05/24/us/california-landslide-scenic-highway/

California State Route 1

26 May

State Route 1 (SR 1) is a major north-south state highway that runs along most of the Pacific coastline of the U.S. state of California. At a total of just over 655.8 miles (1,055.4 km), it is the longest state route in California. Highway 1 has several portions designated as either Pacific Coast Highway (PCH), Cabrillo Highway, Shoreline Highway, or Coast Highway. Its southern terminus is at Interstate 5 (I-5) near Dana Point in Orange County and its northern terminus is at U.S. Highway 101 (US 101) near Leggett in Mendocino County. Highway 1 also at times runs concurrently with US 101, most notably through a 54-mile (87 km) stretch in Ventura and Santa Barbara counties, and across the Golden Gate Bridge.

The highway is designated as an All-American Road. In addition to providing a scenic route to numerous attractions along the coast, the route also serves as a major thoroughfare in the Greater Los Angeles Area, the San Francisco Bay Area, and several other coastal urban areas.

SR 1 was built piecemeal in various stages, with the first section opening in the Big Sur region in the 1930s. However, portions of the route had several names and numbers over the years as more segments opened. It was not until the 1964 state highway renumbering that the entire route was officially designated as Highway 1. Although SR 1 is a popular route for its scenic beauty, frequent landslides and erosion along the coast have caused several segments to be either closed for lengthy periods for repairs, or re-routed further inland.

Contents

Ockham’s Critique

26 May

OCKHAM, WILLIAM OF (c. 1285-1349). (2000). In Encyclopedia of Medieval Literature.

Ockham distinguishes three kinds of natural law: absolute., unchanging natural law in conformity with infallible natural reason; natural law as it obtained prior to the Fall; and natural law ex suppositione, that is, a law which arises in response to a violation of natural law or as a recognition of or concession to a contingent state of affairs. Natural laws of the first kind appear to be unchangeable except through an intervention by God himself. There is an order to which human reason conforms this order seems immune to change without an essential change in human nature. That is, even prior to the Fall, fornication and lying were wrong. As matters now stand after the Fall, private property seems to conform to natural law. But Ockham’s view is that natural law prior to the Fall dictated common ownership of property. Even though it was the Fall that led to private property, Ockham acknowledges the apparent conformity of private property with natural law by distinguishing what natural permits from what natural law dictates. Natural law permits private property; it does not dictate it. It is this permissive sense of natural law that Ockham designates as natural law of the second type. By contrast natural laws of the third type include concessions to fallen human nature, such as the right to self defense, and positive laws because they address contingent circumstances or local needs. The right to self defense is a law of the third kind because it conforms to natural reason as a response to an unjust use of violence.

Public Opinion and the Supreme Court

26 May

The power of the Court has grown to great proportions since its beginning. It has not been backward about taking power, and public opinion has, in the main, approved the system that has developed as a result. The Court’s popular support rests upon two bases, one economic, the other psychological. To a certain extent the psychological backing is a result of economic interests, but not wholly.

The economic interests of the Supreme Court and its promoters are closely connected with the economic significance of the Constitution. It will be remembered that the Constitution was written by representatives of the propertied classes who had suffered from the economic dislocations of the Confederation period, and who expected to profit measurably by the development of a strong government. Not a single wage earner or frontiersman was in the Constitutional Convention. And the constitution was ratified as a result of the support of the men of property. Under Chief Justice Marshall’s leadership, the Supreme Court became the instrumentality for the effective interpretation of the Constitution in a way that would give vitality to the national government and protect the interests of private property. Back of all John Marshall’s great nationalizing decisions that curbed the power of the states and strengthened the central government, most of which were in matters of business and finance, lies the basic conviction that state control and a weak central government has been tried and the result had been economic chaos. Since the earliest days of its power the Court has been exalted by the propertied classes, as the Constitution has been exalted by them, because the Constitution and the Court protects their interests.

 

Public Opinion and the Supreme Court

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Public Opinion in a Democracy

26 May

Image 26 May